Short-term investments are highly liquid investments. You can convert short-term investments into cash easily and without losing the invested value. The main goal of short-term investments through savings plans is to preserve your money.
For example, your child’s admission fee for higher education is due in a few months. But if your long-term investment has already matured, you can park the money in a short-term investment until the payment.
Now you have a choice, keep the money in your primary bank account or park it somewhere else. If you need to pay the fee in a few days it doesn’t matter. But if you still have a few months before the actual fee payment and other expenses, you would want to park the money securely away from your savings account.
Short-term investments are defined as financial instruments that can be converted to cash generally within five years. Short-term investments are usually highly liquid investments with a maturity period of less than five years or anytime withdrawal facility. Short-term investments are quite useful when you need to secure your wealth over a short period or for an unknown period.
You can use short-term investments for parking your emergency funds. Pensioners also use short-term investments to park the annuity funds, if the annuity pay-out is annual. Here are a few distinctive features of short-term investments:
a) No definite maturity period
b) No lock-in for partial or full withdrawals
c) Low but steady return on investment
d) Very low investment risk
|Investment||Rate of Return||Holding Period|
|Savings Account||2% to 7% p.a.||Nil|
|Treasury Securities||7.5% p.a.||91 days to 364 days|
|Fixed Deposit||2.5% to 8% p.a.||7 days to 10 years|
|Recurring Deposits||4% to 8% p.a.||6 months to 10 years|
|Liquid Mutual Funds||2% to 6% p.a.||1 day to No limit|
|Debt Mutual Funds||6% - 9% p.a.||36 months to No limit|
|Corporate Deposits (CD)||6% - 12% p.a.||1 to 3 years|
|National Savings Certificate (NSC)||6.8% p.a.||5 years|
|Equity Mutual Funds||7% - 15% p.a.||12 months to No limit|
|Stocks, Commodities & Derivatives Market||Variable||Less than a day to no limit|
Savings accounts are the most common and versatile short-term investment options. Debit cards linked with savings accounts are perhaps the best feature of savings account investments. However, if you are parking funds to be used later for specific payments, it is better to use other short-term investments.
Since a savings account is also used for the majority of expense payments, your lump sum amount may get affected unintentionally.
Rate of Return: Savings accounts in India pay an interest of 2% p.a. to 7% p.a.
Treasury securities or T-bills are government-backed short-term money-market instruments. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issues T-bills under its open market operations (OMO). These are zero-coupon bonds with maturities of 91, 184, or 364 days.
T-bills offer safety of capital and steady returns with less than one-year maturity. At the same time, you can also trade the bills in case you need money faster.
Rate of Return: ~ 7.5% p.a.
Fixed deposits are one of the most popular safe investments available in India. The best part is that you can invest in FDs directly through your bank account. Thus, parking excess funds away for short durations becomes quite easy.
Nowadays, you can open FDs ranging from 7 days to up to 10 years. You can also open FDs at the nearest post office branches. Post office FDs offer comparable returns and zero TDS.
Rate of Return: 2.5% to 8% depending on the duration
Recurring deposits are also traditional safe investments. With RDs you can invest small amounts regularly to build a large corpus. You can open RDs at your bank through your savings account or at a post office.
PORDs allow you to invest cash in small amounts and build a corpus in over 60 months.
Rate of Return: 4% - 8% depending on duration
Liquid mutual funds, ultra-short-term funds or money market funds are mutual funds which invest in short-term securities. Liquid mutual funds are great short-term investment options due to the following features:
If you want to gather higher returns over an unknown short period, liquid funds are the perfect investment option. The capital gain on withdrawals before 36 months of holding will be added to your taxable income.
Rate of Return: 2% to 6% based on your holding period
Debt mutual funds are the best investment option if you want to invest for less than five years but more than three years. Debt mutual funds offer market-linked variable returns. However, most debt funds can keep your capital safe despite volatility.
You need to invest for at least three years to benefit from long-term capital gain provisions. Also, most debt funds deduct exit load if you liquidate units before 36 months. So, you can avoid any such charges if you invest for more than 36 months.
Rate of Return: 6% - 9% p.a. depending on investment duration and fund type
Corporate deposits are considered riskier than FDs or debt mutual funds. However, they also offer a higher rate of return. You can invest in corporate deposits for varying durations.
CD exit rules are much like bank FDs and you may lose a part of your interest on early withdrawals.
Rate of Return: 6% - 12% depending on the risk profile of the firm
National Savings Certificate is a 5-year deposit scheme which pays interest at the time of maturity. In the meantime, you can trade the certificate with other investors if you need urgent withdrawal.
Rate of Return: 6.8% (NSC VIII Issue w.e.f. 1st April 2020)
You can invest in equity mutual funds for less than five years. However, given the volatility involved in equity markets, it is wiser to have a longer horizon in mind. Even though, equity funds may allow withdrawals after only 12 months of investments your capital may suffer from an early withdrawal.
The best mode of investing in equity funds is through SIP. Here you invest a fixed sum at regular intervals. SIP allows you to have a lower average cost of units than the market. Thus, it is easier for your units to be profitable.
Rate of Return: Variable based on market conditions and investment duration
Stocks, commodities and derivatives can be short-term investment plans with high returns. Investments in stocks, commodities or derivatives are not subject to a minimum holding period. Thus, you can get in and out anytime and use these investments as short-term options.
However, these investments carry significant risks and you should be careful while investing. So, unless your risk appetite allows you to invest in these options, you should stick to investments with more stable returns.
Rate of Return: Variable based on market conditions
This somewhere else is what we consider a short-term investment. However, you may even end up with longer gaps between your investment’s maturity and goal’s achievement.
For example, you would ideally target the age of 25 for your daughter’s marriage. But, in case she wants to wait till 30, you still have five years to park the accumulated money.
Thus, our definition of short-term investment would not follow the typical definition of short-term investment products in the market. But, the time we often end up with after maturity of investment until the goal’s execution.
Few other assumptions we are making is that you do not need additional tax deduction on your investment. Also, there are very few investment options which allow tax-free maturity within five years of investment. So you should consider all the options regardless of their tax status.
Short-term investment plans invest your money into money market securities like treasury bills, corporate bonds close to maturity, and other short-term investments. The objective of short-term investments is to earn interest on idle money while maintaining liquidity.
Thus, short-term investment plans may offer:
a) Higher rate of return than savings or current accounts
b) On-demand withdrawals
c) Capital protection
The short-term investments also help banks, companies and even the government maintain liquidity. At the same time, investors can earn interest on the money otherwise lying idle.
In the terms of investment any security that you can trade for cash within 12 months is a short-term investment option. However, for saving and investment purpose the investment should also meet the following conditions:
a) You can invest and withdraw anytime without affecting your capital
b) The maturity period can be less than a year
c) Investment risk is low (safety of capital)
The primary purpose of investing in any short-term instrument is to keep the capital safe and earn a possible interest on it. For example, when you create an emergency fund pool you want to invest only in the safest possible options.
For this purpose, you park the money into super savers, fixed deposits and liquid funds etc. However, you should never put your emergency funds in equity stocks, commodities and derivatives, even though they allow high liquidity.
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You want to draw the best possible combination of safety, liquidity and tax with any investment. Without exception the best short-term investments offer the best combination of the three:
Capital safety is important as you may park the funds for an unknown period. You often want to either invest these funds in a better investment or use them for specific goals. Thus, losing capital by investing is never a good option.
If you withdraw within 36 months of investment, you incur short-term capital gain (STCG). The earnings will increase your taxable income.
If your withdrawal is after 36 months of holding, the gains are long-term capital gains (LTCG). LTCG gets the benefit of indexation before tax. So, LTCG is better than STCG.
a) You distributed your tax liability over five years. Paying small amounts for a few years is better than paying a huge amount in one financial year.
b) You have better peace of mind, as you don’t have to pay huge taxes at the same time as you are trying to fulfil the goal
c) Your family had the protection of the life cover in case anything happens to you in the meantime
The only limitation this plan may face is that if you have an overall life cover of up to 20 times of your annual income. Insurers generally offer maximum life cover up to 20 times of annual income.
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The top 5 short-term investment plans in 2022 in India are:
a) Savings Accounts
b) Recurring Deposits
c) Fixed Deposits
d) Liquid Funds
e) Corporate Deposits
Equity stocks, commodity futures, and equity derivative contracts are known for generating high returns in short periods. You can invest in these options for less than a day. Thus, these are short-term investments with high returns in India.
You can invest in short-term investment options for less than a day to an infinite period. For example, stock investments can be withdrawn on the same day. You can you’re your money invested in a savings account, liquid mutual funds, stocks, etc. for a lifetime.
Short-term investment examples include savings accounts, fixed deposits, liquid mutual funds, ultra-short-term debt funds, post office deposits, etc. Any investment which allows you to invest quickly and withdraw anytime can be a short-term investment. However, unless your objective is to multiply your money, you should seek out safe investments to preserve your wealth.
A short-term debt fund is a diversified debt fund investing in debt securities like corporate bonds and government bonds. This allows the fund to generate higher returns than money market funds, with almost similar safety. Short-term debt funds may invest a large part of their portfolio in money market securities to maintain higher liquidity. These funds are also known as income funds.
Yes, any investment is an asset. The only difference short-term investments have from other assets is that they are easily convertible to cash.
The best short-term investments for the middle class include the following options:
a) Savings Account
b) Fixed Deposits
c) Recurring Deposits
d) National Savings Certificate
e) Liquid Mutual Funds
f) Debt Mutual Funds
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